The treaty of Hudaibiya was a very significant event in the history of Islam that occurred in 6 Hijri, January 628 A.D.
This pact was to ensure peace and harmony between the Muslims of Madinah, under their Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم), and the Quraish of Makkah.
This event has a prominent background, important events and a future outcome. So, let’s discuss all these topics without further introductions.
After the battle of the trench (ditch), Hazrat Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saw a dream in which he was entering the Sacred Mosque (Masjid-e-Haram).
It is to note that since the messengers of God always see true dreams, therefore, the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) decided to perform Umrah (Hajj-e-Asghar or the lesser pilgrimage).
The Holy Quran mentions the dream of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in the following words:
Truly did Allah fulfil the vision of His messenger; Ye shall enter the Sacred Mosque if Allah wills. with minds secure … and without fear …Surah Fath (48:27) Al-Quran
The companions of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) were delighted when they came across the fact that they had the opportunity to perform Umrah.
Now when you know something about the background of this event, let’s discuss the important events that took place.
Events of the treaty of Hudaibiya:
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) left for Makkah with his 1400 companions in the state of Ihram (the dress code for Hajj and Umrah). The Muslims did not take any weapons with them to portray their peaceful image.
The Muslims were also carrying animals for sacrifice (according to the sources there were 70 camels). However, the Muslims were denied entry into Makkah by the Quraish.
What was the reason behind that?
The Quraish believed that this was the tactical move of Hazrat Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and his companions of conquering Makkah. Therefore, the Quraish dispatched a force under Khalid ibn Waleed and Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl to resist the Muslims.
Since the Muslims did not intend to fight, they changed their route so that they did not come into conflict with the cavalry dispatched under Khalid bin Waleed.
It is to note that this was the time when Khalid ibn Waleed had not embraced Islam yet.
The Muslims thus reached al-Hudaibiya almost after one day because Hudaibiya is located around 9 miles (14.5 kilometres) outside Makkah.
The Quraish sent Budayl ibn Waraqa and Urwa ibn Masud to the Muslims to ask them to return because the Quraish did not intend to fight.
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) assured them of their peaceful intention and the figures dispatched by the Quraish were convinced and impressed after looking at the state of Ihram of the Muslims.
Following this, Hazrat Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) dispatched a companion to negotiate with the Quraish of Makkah regarding their sole purpose. However, the companion did not return and thus, Hazrat Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) sent Hazrat Usman Ghani (R.A).
But, why was Hazrat Usman (R.A) sent to the Quraish?
The reason was that Hazrat Usman ibn Affan (R.A) was from Banu Ummaya and thus, he enjoyed tribal protection. This meant that the Quraish could not hurt him or else they would be at a rivalry with Banu Ummaya.
Hazrat Usman bin Affan (R.A) did not return and it was rumoured that he had been killed.
This was the time when Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) took an oath along with his 1400 companions to avenge the death of Hazrat Usman (R.A).
And do you know what this oath is known as?
This is known as Bayat-e-Rizwan or the oath of good pleasure which was taken under a tree. The Holy Quran regarding this event says that:
God indeed was pleased with the believers, when they swore allegiance to you under the tree.Surah Fath (48:12) Al-Quran
Soon Hazrat Usman (R.A) returned and the Makkans sent their leaders to negotiate as they did not want to come into clash with the Muslims.
The Muslims under the command Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) left for Makkah to perform Umrah. However, the Quraish dispatched a force under Khalid bin Waleed to resist the Muslims.
Hazrat Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) assured Quraish about their peaceful intention. But after Bayat-e- Rizwan, the Quraish were ready to conclude a treaty with the Muslims.
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The people such as Sohail bin Amr were sent to conclude a treaty with the Muslims. The treaty was written by Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib (R.A).
The treaty of Hudaibiya started with:
In the name of God, most merciful, most compassionate…
Sohail objected for using their method of praising God and it (Tasmia) was changed to:
In your name, O God!
Later in the treaty, the Quraish asked Hazrat Ali bin Abu Talib (R.A) to change the phrase, “Muhammad the messenger of God”. Hazrat Ali (R.A) was reluctant to change this phrase and his wisdom and goodwill were known to the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم).
Therefore, he made the change himself and it was changed to “Muhammad son of Abdullah”.
According to the treaty of Hudaibiya, there was:
- Peace for 10 years.
- Any tribe wanting to be an ally of the Quraish or Muslims could do so.
- Muslims seeking refugee in Madinah was to be returned to the Quraish of Makkah.
- The non-Muslims seeking refugee in Makkah were not to be returned.
- Muslims would return to Madinah and they will come to perform Umrah the next year (that means 7 Hijri).
Some of the companions of Hazrat Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم), such as Hazrat Umar bin Khattab (R.A), were not happy over the terms of the treaty of Hudaibiya.
As a result, they declared their concern openly to the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) who assured them of the support and help of God.
This happened as well as the Quran says:
With this, the companions calmed down. Abu Jandal was the one who escaped from Makkah to Madinah. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) prayed for him and returned him to observe the pact of the treaty.
Even though Abu Jandal was in a bad condition but still, the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) returned him. This shows that he was the one who always fulfilled his promises and he never violated the terms of a treaty.
- This treaty was important for the Muslims of Madinah as it allowed them to perform Umrah the next year (7 Hijri).
The Muslims were taught the method of Umrah and the questions relating to this subject were also addressed.
- The treaty allowed peace and harmony to prevail as both the Quraish and the Muslims came on friendly terms.
Soon after the treaty, Hazrat Khalid ibn Walid and Amr bin Aas accepted Islam.
- The increasing influence and the strength of Islam was evident as the bitterest enemies of Islam were ready to negotiate with the Muslims.
The Quraish also recognized the Islamic State in Madinah. Due to the treaty, several other tribes also came forward to sign peace treaties with the Muslims.
Moreover, the violation of the treaty emerged towards a peaceful conquest of Makkah by the Muslims in 8 Hijri by Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and his force.
- Lastly, the pact was a clear indication that Islam is a religion of peace.
The Muslims did not shed any blood on their route to Madinah and they changed their route to prevent clash with the Muslims.
The importance of this event can also be recognised from the fact that it is termed as a “clear victory” in the Holy Quran.
To conclude, the article regarding the treaty of Hudaibiya has come to an end. I hope that all your questions have been answered regarding this event.
This pact of Hudaibiya was a major milestone for the Muslims who had fought several wars with the Quraish of Makkah in the past such as the Battle of Uhud.
Thank You very much for staying with me till the end and stay tuned for more.