Battle of Mu’tah GCE O Level Islamiat Notes

The battle of Mu’tah is a very important conflict in the history of Islam because it demonstrated the power of Muslims to the Romans.

This battle was fought in September 629 CE near Mouta (a village East of the river Jordan).

This is a very significant event in the Prophet’s (PBUH) life in Madina. To understand this, you need to know that this was fought against the Byzantines who were the superpower at that moment.

Therefore, this battle was against a very powerful opponent. The Muslims faith in Allah helped them to counter the problems with ease. You should know some details about this conflict as your O Level Islamiat syllabus requires it.

Background:

This battle started when Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W) sent a letter to Shurahabeel bin Umro Ghassani (governor of Syria from the government of Rome) through Hazrat Haris bin Umair Azdi (R.A).

However, Shrahabeel martyred him without seeing the letter.Holy Prophet (S.A.W) was distressed and he was determined to give a powerful reply.

Why did the Prophet (PBUH) send a letter? This is because at that time the power of Islam was growing rapidly. Therefore, the Prophet (PBUH) decided to sent letters to the governors and the emperors, inviting them to Islam.

Battle of Mu'tah

The Command For Jihad:

The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) told this sorrow news to his companions (R.A). He (S.A.W) set up an army of 3000 companions (R.A) to tell the Byzantines that the Muslims will avenge the death of Hazrat Haris (R.A).

He (S.A.W) made Hazrat Zaid bin Haris (R.A) as the flag bearer and said that if he were to be martyred than his paternal cousin Hazrat Jafar (R.A) would take over and if he were to be martyred than Hazrat Abdullah bin Rawwaha (R.A) would take over and if he too was martyred then Muslims should consult among themselves for a commander. 

This was a dangerous task to appoint three commanders at once but it indicated martyrdom of all. Hence the 3000 companions (R.A) left for Syria to meet the Byzantines.

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The Battle of Mu’tah Begins:

The companions thought that they were going to fight Shurahabeel but when they reached Maan the area of Jordan, Heraclius was there with an army of 100,000 soldiers. 

Other tribes dispatched him another 100,000 soldiers hence he was with an army of 200,000 soldiers. 

Muslims advised telling that to Holy Prophet (S.A.W) that he could tell other plan or send more reinforcement. Than Hazrat Abdullah bin Rawwaha gave a speech that motivated the Muslims. He said:

O, people! You are nervous today of the very aim you had set for yourself, exactly the goal for which you set out from your homes, martyrdom. Remember whenever we fought wars, it was never on the basis of superiority of number, arms or horses. We fought only for our religion which is an honour bestowed on us by the Almighty. Go ahead either you will overpower the enemy or gain martyrdom and enter heaven.

Hazrat Abdullah bin Rawwaha (R.A).

After listening to this courageous and inspiring speech Muslims were aroused by a passionate enthusiasm for martyrdom, setting up camps at Mouta.

The Events of War:

A severe and conflict battle took place at Mouta. Both armies attacked each other fiercely. During the battle, while fighting fiercely Hazrat Zaid bin Haris (R.A) was martyred, then Hazrat Jafar (R.A) became the flag bearer. 

In the shower of arrows and spears, it was difficult for him to remain seated on his horse so he got down and pushed into the ranks of the Byzantines. 

Battle of Mu'tah
Image by Radoan Tanvir from Pixabay 

When the enemy struck down his right arm he held the flag with his left arm and when the enemy struck down his left arm he tried to hold the flag with his cut off arms but he was martyred by the third attack.

Hazrat Abdullah bin Umer (R.A) said that he had more than 90 wounds on his body made by spears and arrows but there was no wound on his back.

According to the command of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) then Hazrat Abdullah bin Rawwaha (R.A) became flag bearer and started advancing towards the enemy. 

He was starving for many days, seeing this his Paternal cousin gave him a small piece of meat, he sucked on it once and said:

“You are indulging in these Worldly activities in this condition.”

Then he fought fiercely and gave his life to his Maker. Hazrat Sabit (R.A) lept over the flag and said, “select any one amongst you as Commander”.

The Muslims said that they want him to be the commander but he disagreed then Muslims made Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (R.A) as their commander.

He made three rows of Muslims and whenever enemy came to attack the right rows the right row backed up and left side came forward and when the enemy tried to attack the left side they backed and right side come forward and middle row attacked.

In this way, he wisely reshuffled the flanks and the enemies thought that the Muslims has been reinforced.

In this way, Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (R.A) forced the Roman armies to flee. Allah the Almighty by his power all this to Holy Prophet (S.A.W) and the Prophet told all this to the city.

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Muslim losses:

Some of the prominent Muslims that were martyred in the battle are mentioned below (4 of them from Muhajireen and 8 of them from Ansar).

  1. Zaid bin Haritha
  2. Jafar bin Abi Talib
  3. Abdullah ibn Rawwaha
  4. Amer bin Saad
  5. Saraqa bin Amr
  6. Abbad bin Qais
  7. Jabir ibn Amr
  8. Abu Kulaib bin Amr
  9. Harith bin Nauman
  10. Amr bin Saad
  11. Wahab bin Saad
  12. Masood bin Al-Aswad

Importance of War:

Battle of Mu'tah

The importance is that the Muslims were successful in showing their power to the Romans and indirectly to all of the non-Muslims.

Moreover, the battle also showed the spirit of martyrdom among Muslims. This created fear among the rivals of Muslims.

Furthermore, the conflict was also significant because the Prophecy of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) about the battle proved to be correct.

Due to this, the belief of the Muslims in Prophet (S.A.W) increased.
In the same way, when Romans ruthlessly killed an innocent Muslim, it became essential to tell them that this would not be permitted. All the transgressors thus became informed of this fact.

Lastly, the battle was also significant because when a very small force of Muslims defeated a massive Roman army, the strength of Allah became visible to all Muslims.

Conclusion:

I hope that your questions are answered in the blog. The battle of Mu’tah is a very significant topic in GCE O Level Islamiat therefore, sufficient details for the topic have been provided.

This battle indicates that wars are not won with numbers but with passion and the spirit of martyrdom. The Prophet (peace be upon him) himself said that war is nothing but a game of tactics.

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